The process of IT integration within education services has been linked with the innovation diffusion process (Rogers, 2010). This theory is widely used in research to understand the state of ICT integration in universities. According to Sahin (2006), the theory of innovation diffusion is the most appropriate concept for exploring the integration of IT into higher education services

This is premised on the fact that:

Stage 1: Individuals have different characteristics that follow a set of stages to integrate a particular IT system/innovation (Ankem, 2004; Kirkup & Kirkwood, 2005; Tabata & Johnsrud, 2008).  These characteristics and a set of stages. This is also confirmed by the TIM which has 5stages and 5 corresponding activities.

Stage 2: The potential perceived value of innovation will affect the individual’s decision on whether to adopt it at an early stage of the integration process or not to adopt it. Thus, in order to speed up the innovation process across university services, staff and students must be prepared to adopt emerging forms of IT with minimal or no resistance to change.

The perceived value of innovation like tech and how it can affect the decision to adopt or reject technology at an early stage or not. The alternative is Resistance to change.

Stage 3: The integration of IT within educational activities starts with the awareness of a newly introduced technology and then proceed with the formulation of attitudes towards this technology.  That individuals, in spite of their varying characteristics, will FORMULATE ATTITUDES towards IT integration.  
Stage 4: The last stage of the diffusion of innovation is the confirmation (stage) of using a new technology to improve university services (Rogers, 2010; Sahin, 2006). The Confirmation stage of using technology. At the confirmation stage of an innovation diffusion process, institutions are able to gain an innovative value addition and increase their return on investment in IT.
Within a university setting, faculty, students and administrators may have distinct characteristics that can affect the integration of IT. Therefore, an understanding of these characteristics can form the basis for preparing them to be fully involved in the initial stages of the innovation diffusion process.

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